pigs huddling

PIG VIRAL DISEASES, A list of the commonly diagnosed

PIG VIRAL DISEASES, A list of the commonly diagnosed 725 544 Sefa

As upcoming pig producers, the health of your animals plays a key role in the success of your farm. There are numerous viral diseases. However, today’s article focuses on some of the most common viral infections that you may encounter on your farm. Immediately alert your veterinarian when you suspect any of the underlisted diseases on your farm.

  1. African swine fever: a viral disease of the Asfaviridae family. Disease can cause 100% mortality in a herd.  
  2. Classical swine fever: This viral disease affects pigs of all ages and has similar signs to African Swine fever.  
  1. Vesicular stomatitis: The disease is transmitted usually via insects such as mosquitoes, sand flies and black flies. It is a zoonotic disease.
  2. Aujeszky’s disease: It is a nervous disease of pigs. High mortalities can be recorded in piglets.
  3. Foot-and-mouth disease: Signs include lameness as well as blisters on the snout, feet, and tongue.  
  4. The Nipah virus: It affects the respiratory and central nervous system of pigs. The condition is known as “Barking Pig Syndrome” or Porcine Respiratory Encephalitic Syndrome (PRES).  It is a zoonotic disease
  5. The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS):  It is caused by an RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family. Signs include respiratory distress, stillbirths, and late term abortions.
  6. Swine pox: It belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is characterised by vesicular lesions on the flanks, ears, and abdomen.  
  7. Porcine parvovirus infection: One of the major reproductive diseases in pigs. Signs include mummified foetuses, decreased litter size and stillbirth.   
  8. The Swine vesicular disease: it is caused by an enterovirus belonging to the Picornaviridae family. The disease can easily be confused with foot and mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis.

Abscesses in pigs and how to deal with it.

Abscesses in pigs and how to deal with it. 653 758 Sefa

An abscess is a cavity filled with pus and dead cell material, usually due to inflammations caused by bacteria. The bacterium has access to the body when there is a break in the skin or via external orifices (openings). All pigs are susceptible to this condition. Abscesses are usually walled off from the rest of the body tissues. The bacterium can be circulated through the blood stream to establish new abscesses elsewhere in the body. Most abscesses in pigs develop near the skin surface. Abscesses have a raised or swollen appearance with fluid content when aspirated. Pigs with abscesses presented for slaughter could be condemned during inspection. It is important to identify and treat abscesses as soon as they are noted.


  • Trauma to the body from: fights, sharp objects, teeth removal and tail biting
  • Infections caused by Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp such as Greasy pig disease. Abscesses can also arise from secondary infections following other conditions such as swine pox and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
  • Poorly administered injections
  • Abscesses may develop around joints following fractures

Clinical signs

  • Swellings on the body with swollen sites often filled with pus or blood
  • Pain/discomfort
  • Possibly emaciation and death.
  • Ulcerations on the skin
  • Lameness (particularly spinal abscesses and those found around the joints and limbs)


Treatment aims at draining pus from the affected area and preventing spread of the infection. Sometimes draining occurs naturally when the abscess bursts. Others may require lancing (surgically opening to drain). Kindly seek medical attention (visit your Vet for assistance).  Treatment may include topical penicillin/ oxytetracycline/amoxicillin based ointments and systemic medications for about 3-5 days.


  • Ensure sharp objects are removed from the pig pens and its surroundings
  • Ensure pigs are not crowded in pens and separate aggressive ones to avoid fights
  • Long-acting antibiotic injections given at the time of damage will often prevent infection.
  • Avoid anything that would stress or cause discomfort to the pigs
  • Ensure medications, especially injectables are administered by veterinary professionals and instructions provided on medication must be adhered to

Pig vice behavior and how to mitigate it.

Pig vice behavior and how to mitigate it. 720 490 Sefa

Vices in pigs refers to a group of abnormal behaviors in pigs including biting, chewing and sucking of the vulva, tail, ears, flanks and navels, usually as a result of stress. The sows will tend to bite vulva especially during the late stages of pregnancy and it can be a major problem in loosely housed sows and poorly managed housing systems, which may end up in the loss of lives of valuable sows and piglets.


  • High stocking densities in pens / Overcrowding
  • Genetic predispositions (some breeds of pigs are more aggressive than others)
  • Poorly nourished (under-fed) pigs
  • Poor housing structures (narrow and thin pens)
  • Inadequate drinkers and feed distributors
  • Swollen vulva. The vulva is a highly vascularized tissue. The swollen vulva attracts more attacks and bites from the pigs especially if it is big which worsens the condition
  • Harsh weather conditions such as cold weathers

Clinical signs

  • Lacerations or cuts with blood on the skin and nose
  • Blood stains within the yard or pen
  • Mild to severe bleeding with damage to the vulva
  • Death
  • Scarred tissues at the vulval region which affects farrowing (still births, tearing of the vulva)


  • Increase the feed intake (particularly for underfed pigs)
  • Make available enough feeders and drinkers to avoid bullying and aggression. Feeders and drinkers should be evenly spaced
  • Maintain sizeable or small numbers of sows in a pen
  • Remove the offending sow(s) in the pen
  • Structure of pens should be wide and not narrow and long
  • Increase the salt levels to 0.9% per ton
  • Pregnant sows should be moved to a new pen with more floor area


Affected sows should be quickly isolated and kept in a separate pen.

Contact your Vet for assistance.

The sow’s condition will be assessed by a vet and given medications as well as possibly prepare her for surgery.

Iron toxicity, a common Poisoning problem in Piglets and how to mitigate it

Iron toxicity, a common Poisoning problem in Piglets and how to mitigate it 610 464 Sefa

Iron injections or iron dextran shots are usually administered to piglets between the first and seventh day of birth. This corrects the development of iron deficiency in piglets, which results in anaemia. Piglets are usually born with low iron reserves and the sows’ milk unfortunately is low in iron. During pregnancy, some sows or gilts become deficient in Vitamin E and/or selenium (which aids in preventing iron toxicity). This results in the birth of piglets deficient in Vitamin E and Selenium and it subsequently poses a threat for such piglets who receive iron injections. The enzymes which metabolise the iron cannot function leading to the accumulation and subsequent toxicity of iron in the body.

Clinical signs

  • The affected piglet is lame with dark swelling around injection site. About 50% or more of the litter die within a few hours.


  • Whilst inferior quality iron dextran poses a threat to piglets, deficiency of selenium and vitamin E is a major concern.
  • Once vitamin E or selenium deficiency has been diagnosed, piglets should be injected with vitamin E/selenium according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  • Sows within the last month of pregnancy should be injected with vitamin E. At least two weeks before farrowing.

Control and Prevention

  • Excessive oxidation of feed as a result of poor storage of cereals, or the accumulation of moisture in feed troughs which have not been cleaned out is the most common cause of low vitamin E status.
  • Always check the sources and storage facilities of all feed grains and ensure feed troughs are regularly cleaned out

Coccidiosis in pigs – an under diagnosed cause of porcine diarrhoea

Coccidiosis in pigs – an under diagnosed cause of porcine diarrhoea 720 567 Sefa


Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the digestive system of pigs. Although all growth stages of pigs can be affected by this disease, piglets are most susceptible to this condition. the protozoa Eimeria spp, Isospora spp and Cryptosporidia spp causes Coccidiosis in pigs and can produce oocyst which is shed through the faeces of an infected pig. 

The shed oocyst is the primary source of infection. Once in a conducive environment, the oocyst undergoes development to be infective when ingested by an animal. In the intestines of an infected animal, further development and multiplication of the parasite occurs resulting in the production of several oocysts which are subsequently shed again in the faeces, contaminating the environment. This process of reproduction of the parasite in the walls of the intestines destroy and erode the intestinal lining, preventing proper nutrient and fluid absorption. This leads to diarrhoea, loss of weight, and death.  In housing facilities where proper sanitary and biosecurity protocols are not adhered to, the parasite spreads rapidly. Warm and moist environments also facilitate the multiplication of the parasite, especially in farrowing pens and litter crates


– Foul smelling diarrhoea. Consistency and colour may vary from yellow to grey, green or bloody, depending on severity of the damage to the intestinal lining.

– Dehydration as a result of severe loss of fluids

– Undersized or underweight piglets

– Mortalities (this occurs especially with secondary infections caused by bacteria or viruses)


Establishing an effective hygiene program for your farm is key in preventing this disease.

– Use disinfectants (Ammonium compound/Bleach/oo-cide) to thoroughly clean the housing facility

– Keep the pen as dry as possible and litter in the pens should be changed frequently.

– Farrowing pens should be thoroughly disinfected and aired before sow farrows

– Cleaning of pens should be done daily. The order should be from uninfected pens to infected pens. Also, pens of younger animals should be cleaned first before moving to pens of older animals.  

– farmers must keep Creep Feed in feeders which can easily be used by piglets and not on the floor

– farmers should properly disposed off fecal waste from farm and not close to farm.



As upcoming pig producers, the health of your animals plays a key role in the success of your farm. There are numerous bacterial diseases. However, today’s article focuses on some of the most common bacterial infections that you may encounter on your farm. Immediately alert your veterinarian when you come across similar signs of diseases listed below.

  1. Swine dysentery is caused by the spiral shaped bacterium, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. It causes severe inflammation in the large intestine, producing bloody and mucoid diarrhoea.
  2. Erysipelas is mainly found in growing and adult pigs. It produces unique diamond shaped skin lesions with severe joint pains and inappetence.  
  3. Exudative Dermatitis also known as Greasy Pig disease, is caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus hyicus. Pigs housed in poor hygienic conditions, with poor ventilation, or having cuts on the skin are susceptible to this disease.
  4. Leptospirosis is a severe reproductive disease caused by Leptospira spp.
  5. Colibacillosis is caused by E.coli and mostly affects young piglets, the most of which come down with severe diarrhoea.
  6. Postpartum Agalactia Syndrome causes inflammation of the udder and the reproductive tract leading to reduced or no milk production.
  7. Actinobacillosis caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus suis, Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae or Actinobacillus equuli causes severe respiratory infections with signs such as pneumonia, tremors and arthritis.
  8. Atrophic Rhinitis is a contagious disease caused by Pasteurella multocida. It leads to inflammation of the nasal tissues and shortening of the snout or upper jaw.
  9. Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with clinical signs such as abortion, lameness and orchitis.
  10. Streptococcus Infection caused by Streptococcus suis is one of the major causes of meningitis in pigs. Spread of infection is mostly related to hygiene.
  11. Salmonellosis is caused by Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium. Signs of disease include coughing, fever and diarrhoea which may be foul smelling.
  12. Clostridum Infection caused by Clostridium perfringens causes severe diarrhoea and high mortalities in young pigs.

Scarce Info Revealed on Valley Fever in Dogs

Scarce Info Revealed on Valley Fever in Dogs 756 1008 admin

The Definition of Valley Fever in Dogs 

Valley fever in dogs is a mostly unknown condition in Europe, as it is a disease that occurs primarily in certain parts of America – named after the valleys where you often find it. The proper name for canine valley fever is coccidioidomycosis which occurs when infection by the fungus Coccidiodes immitis occurs. 

But what are valley fever symptoms in dogs, and how do you treat it? Keep reading to learn more! 

Cute Black Pug Dog

Signs and Symptoms of Canine Valley Fever

Valley fever is common in humans but is also present in some cases in cattle, horses, tigers, and even some marine mammals. Dogs seem even more susceptible than most, possibly due to sniffing the ground and thereby inhaling fungus spores in large quantities. 

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Once inside the lungs, the valley fever fungus spores will develop into spherules. In a healthy dog, these shouldn’t cause too much trouble, as the immune system will destroy the spherules by walling them off. In these cases, the valley fever symptoms will often be mild, and some owners may not even notice it. 

However, the spherule can keep growing due to other comorbidities if the dog suffers from a weak immune system. Eventually, they will burst and release more spores that can spread throughout the lungs and into the body—starting a horrible cycle within the dog. 

The primary symptoms of valley fever in dogs often center around the lungs. Symptoms in these cases will usually include a dry cough, a fever, hyporexia (lack of appetite), and being lethargic (tired).  

When the fungus spreads, it becomes disseminated. Here especially, joints tend to get affected, which is why valley fever in dogs appears limbing and lameness in some cases. In severe cases, it can also occur as valley fever skin lesions on the dog. 

The Valley Fever Survival Rate in Dogs

A young and healthy dog is unlikely to pass away due to valley fever. As mentioned, the immune system will control and limit the spread of the fungus. However, a very young or old dog or a dog with a compromised immune system may experience severe disease and can, in some cases, die due to fungus or secondary infections. 

However, once treated appropriately, most dogs will recover from the illness. If you suspect your dog may suffer from valley fever, you should contact your veterinary care provider immediately. 

How Do Vets Test for Canine Valley Fever?

Suppose you live in an area where valley fever; your veterinarian is probably familiar with the condition. If your dog shows classic valley fever symptoms, your veterinarian will likely perform a thorough clinical exam and recommend diagnostic testing.

Luckily, a specific valley fever test for dogs exists and is a titer test. The titer test determines whether your dog has valley fever antibodies. Antibodies are small immune proteins showing an earlier exposure to the fungus. 

If your dog displays severe symptoms, your vet may also recommend additional testing, including blood tests and x-rays

Even if you don’t live in an area where valley fever is prevalent, it is crucial to inform your veterinarian if you have traveled to an area where the fungus exists. 

Papillon dog traveling in car

How it’s Treated

If your dog is exposed to the fungus and displays symptoms, there are, luckily, valley fever treatment options available for your veterinarian to help your dog. Currently, the most common treatment is lengthy treatment with anti-fungal medication. 

Most commonly, the anti-fungal medication prescribed is either ketoconazole, itraconazole, or fluconazole for dogs. Treatment is prolonged, but most dogs should feel better within 1-2 weeks after initial treatment. 

Some supportive care may be necessary depending on the infection’s severity, including intravenous fluid, oxygen therapy, and anti-inflammatory support. 

The anti-fungal medication also carries some side effects that may need managing with additional support, including anti-nausea medication and medication to increase appetite. Periodic blood tests will, in most cases, also be necessary to monitor liver function and comorbidities that can arise.  

Is Valley Fever in Dogs Contagious?

Valley fever is not contagious. Even when coughing, spores cannot spread between animals or people. Even with multiple afflicted animals in a household, it is not likely to spread to other individuals as the primary infection pathway occurs when inhaling spores from the soil. 

How do Dogs Get Valley Fever?

As dogs walk around in the dry areas where the coccidiosis fungus lives, they sniff the ground as dogs do. The fungi thrive in the soil, and especially the spores are quickly whirled around with the dusty air. As dogs sniff, they quickly inhale large quantities of the spores, which then cause valley fever disease. 

It is important to remember that roughly 70% of dogs that inhale the spores never show any Valley Fever symptoms and may even become immune to the disease afterward. However, some dogs will become sick, which is why it is essential to keep an eye out for symptoms if you have been traveling in an area known to have valley fever.  

Where in the USA is Valley Fever Found?

Dogs mostly contract valley fever in the dry regions of the USA, including the low desert regions of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and the central area of California. Remember that both humans and dogs can contract the disease, so it is vital to keep an eye out for you and your dog if you travel to any of these regions! 

Other Species Susceptible to Valley Fever

Infection with fungus spores can occur in almost any mammal and even some fish, although rare. Some animals, like cattle, often stay asymptomatic – meaning they show no symptoms of infection. Other animals that can catch Valley Fever include llamas and alpacas, as well as horses and humans. 

Apes and monkeys are very susceptible to Valley Fever, why these often receive treatment preventively if they live in zoos in an area known to have the fungus. 

Although more, rare cats can also become infected with Valley Fever. In cats, the most common symptom of the disease is skin lesions. They rarely cough or display lameness but can show abscess-looking lesions that often ooze a pale yellow or red fluid. Diagnosis and treatment of Valley Fever in cats are often similar to the process in dogs. 

How to Prevent it

Obviously, the best way to prevent a Valley Fever infection is to keep your dog away from areas where the fungi are known to be present. However, that advice is unhelpful for anyone who lives in the area or needs to travel there. Or those of us who love to explore the world with our best friend at our side. 

Preventing Valley Fever is difficult, but there are some things you can do to keep your best friends from getting infected. The best thing you can do is to keep away from areas with a lot of dry soil; simply putting them on a leash and keeping them close to you can prevent your dog from inhaling too many spores. 

Also, if you can, avoid kicking up too much dust. Preventing excessive amounts of dust can benefit both you and your four-legged friend! 

Lastly, keep an eye out for symptoms. Early diagnosis and initial treatment is the best way to ensure the disease does not progress into a more severe condition. 

Also, there is good news for owners who would love to travel the dry valleys of Arizona! Currently, a vaccine is being tested, which may prove sufficient for protecting our furry friends from the dreaded Valley Fever. The newest studies show that vaccinated dogs showed little to no symptoms after infection when treated with the vaccine! Read our article and find out more about DHPP Vaccine.

Dog looking at the vaccine

Prognosis and Recovery

Not all infected dogs show symptoms of Valley Fever once infected with the Coccidiodes fungus; roughly 70% of infected dogs stay asymptomatic. But if your dog does, the best way to improve the prognosis is to seek veterinary care as early as possible. If the fungus becomes disseminated, the prognosis will inevitably worsen. 

Nonetheless, no matter the stage of the disease, there are treatment options available that will hopefully get your dog back out and exploring in no time! 

The Word’s Out!

We all love to explore the world with our best friends, and hiking through the beautiful valleys is no exception. There is, however, a sinister little foe present in the idyllic areas that can affect our dogs and even us. 

You should not ignore the dangers of Valley Fever, but if you keep an eye out for symptoms and seek veterinary care if symptoms appear, you should be fine to keep living in and loving the dusty southern valleys!

The Severity of Anemia in Cats

The Severity of Anemia in Cats 1039 784 admin

What is Anemia in Cats? 

Anemia occurs when the circulatory system’s concentration of red blood cells is lower than expected. Vets consider anemia in cats to be a severe condition. A cat’s standard red blood cell concentration of 25-45%. 

Vets refer to red blood cell concentration as packed cell volume (PCV) or hematocrit. A PCV value lower than 25% indicates that a cat is anemic. 

Cute little cat

Can You Treat Feline Anemia Naturally?

The bone marrow produces red blood cells (RBCs), which enter the circulation once they mature. The RBC’s primary responsibility is transporting oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. 

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The lifespan of an RBC is around seventy to eighty days, but if they become compromised, it takes approximately two weeks for the body to replace them. 

There are several causes for anemia with various medical management options, including holistic alternatives for owners who wonder how to treat anemia in cats naturally. 

What are the Signs and Symptoms?

The red blood cells produce the pink color owners observe when they look at the color of their pet’s gums. Changes in the gum color can also be due to decreased blood pressure, but an ashen pink or white gum color is a clear indicator of a severe problem in the circulatory system. 

When vets investigate anemia in cats, symptoms that owners may notice will include the following: 

  • They have decreased energy levels.
  • They show reduced interest in their environment, exercise, or play activities. 
  • Increased intervals of sleep. 
  • Changes occur in the color of a cat’s gums, the white portion of its eye (sclera), or eyelids. The color changes associated with anemia range from pale pink to white, but yellow is also a sign of anemia in later stages due to the breakdown of old red blood cells.
  • If there are insufficient RBCs, the body cannot get enough oxygen, and some cats will start to pant, breathe with an open mouth and develop an increased heart rate.  
  • Vomiting and dark black pasty stools also occur in end-stage anemia cases. 

The Causes of Anemia in Cats

The causes of anemia depend on which health condition leads to decreased red blood cells. 

The three predominant conditions include the following:

  • The destruction of red blood cells.
  • The loss of red blood cells.
  • The failure to produce new red blood cells.

The Destruction of Red Blood Cells

There are several reasons why RBCs would undergo destruction in the circulatory system. This destruction breaks RBCs down before the body can replenish the reserve unless a vet diagnoses and treats the cause.

Infectious causes of RBC destruction result from the body’s immune system recognizing the pathogens inside the cell and then targeting it for destruction. Some parasites also result in red blood cell rupture after replication, thereby releasing more parasites into circulation. 

The leading infectious causes in cats include Mycoplasma haemofelisMycoplasma haemominutumBabesia felis, and Cytauxzoon felis.

A cat’s immune system can destroy RBCs in the presence of an autoimmune disease. The body attacks its own cells, mistaking them for foreign pathogens, leading to anemia. Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia in cats is a condition with severe health implications, and it is not always easy to treat.

Cancer, Feline Leukemia Virus, and certain chemicals or toxins have the potential to trigger an autoimmune reaction. 

Toxins that cause anemia in cats include garlic, onions, zinc, acetaminophen, or paracetamol. These toxins cause oxidative damage to RBCs that result in their rupture, often leading to dire complications for the heart, lungs, and kidneys—the oxidative damage results in Heinz Body anemia in cats.

The Loss of Red Blood Cells

Blood loss causes anemia by decreasing blood volume in the circulatory system. The most common causes of blood loss are trauma resulting in significant hemorrhage, clotting disorders, internal or external parasite infections, and cancer.

Flea anemia in cats is the most prevalent form of anemia in kittens. Ticks and worms such as hookworm parasitize the blood of cats, and severe infestations result in significantly decreased RBC concentrations.

Calico cat

Failure to Produce Red Blood Cells

A red blood cell’s life span is only two weeks, and if the body cannot produce adequate amounts of blood to replenish the expired cells, then drastic anemia sets in. This anemia is severe and needs veterinary attention as soon as possible.

Factors that affect red blood cell production include chronic disease, bone marrow pathology, cancer, or toxic chemicals. 

The Different Types of Feline Anemia

Clinicians refer to the two types of anemia as regenerative or non-regenerative. When comparing regenerative vs. non-regenerative anemia, the most discernible difference is the prognosis. Most non-regenerative anemias carry a poor prognosis.

Regenerative anemia indicates that the body can replenish the lost red blood cells through erythropoiesis. The cells may show signs of premature cells, known as reticulocytes, being pushed out of the marrow due to increased demand. A high reticulocyte count indicates an appropriate response to combat lost red blood cells.

Most regenerative anemias occur due to either acute or chronic blood loss and will improve if treated appropriately. 

Non-regenerative anemia in cats occurs when there is no appropriate bone marrow response to the decreased level of red blood cells. If the bone marrow is compromised or the body cannot produce adequate messengers to trigger erythropoiesis, the body cannot correct the anemia state. 

The kidneys produce erythropoietin, the hormone that triggers blood production in the bone marrow. If the kidneys become compromised due to renal insufficiency or acute kidney injury, then RBC production decreases significantly. 

Some cancers also affect the bone marrow; if there is no bone marrow response, vets may consider aplastic anemia in cats.

What is the Average Recovery Time?

When treating anemia in cats, recovery time depends on severity and cause. Cats with advanced anemia require hospitalization, extensive tests, and a blood transfusion. Most hospital stays range from two to seven days. The sooner an anemic cat gets diagnosed, the better the outcome.

How is Anemia in Cats Tested and Diagnosed?

There are several causes of anemia in cats, so a vet will need to perform several tests to try and determine the underlying pathology. The primary test is the measurement of red blood cell concentration with a complete blood count to quantify the hematocrit or PCV. A vet considers the cat anemic if this value is below 25 percent. 

The following test help to investigate the cause of anemia:

  • Physical examination and clinical history to consider external parasites or possible toxin exposure.
  • Blood smear examination by a pathologist. 
  • Serum chemistry, electrolyte balances, and urine analysis.
  • Fecal flotation to rule out internal parasites.
  • Diagnostic imaging, such as radiographs or ultrasounds, checks for active bleeding or masses. 
  • Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus tests.
  • Bone marrow biopsy. 

The attending vet determines the number of tests performed depending on the results of the minimum medical database and the clinical symptoms. 

How Do Vets Cure the Condition?

When faced with a complex health condition, owners may wonder, “How do you treat anemia in cats?”

If the anemia is life-threatening, vets may recommend a blood transfusion. Cats have two blood types, A and B, and it is essential to get the right blood type before a transfusion to avoid an adverse immune reaction. It is vital to draw samples before the transfusion to be able to diagnose the possible causes of the anemia. 

Once stable, the vet will start to manage the symptoms, and once the vet makes a diagnosis, they can implement a treatment plan. The treatment depends on the inciting cause, but most non-trauma-related protocols include steroids, antibiotics, gastroprotectant drugs, and possible internal or external parasite control. 

If trauma is the cause, cat anemia treatment requires stopping the hemorrhage with either surgery or a pressure bandage. Blood transfusions, fluid therapy, and oxygen administration occur if the patient is severely compromised or in hypovolemic shock. 

Chronic kidney disease management depends on the stage of renal impairment, but most treatments include diet supplementation, blood pressure medication, and gastroprotectants. The use of drugs to simulate erythropoietin may help improve the anemia temporarily.  

Due to the serious nature of the condition, most vets do not advocate holistic treatment for anemia in cats. 

Cat making a face

What Happens if Feline Anemia is Left Untreated?

Most cats will succumb to the secondary complications of anemia if an owner does not take action and treat the condition. 

The Prognosis and Outcome

Each anemia case outcome depends on an individual’s ability to respond to treatment. Cats have a good prognosis if the condition is caught early and treated effectively. 

Cats with severe anemia caused by cancer, autoimmune diseases, or toxins have a more guarded prognosis. The potential for extended, frequent hospital stays and chronic medications is a big reality for cats with chronic anemia.

Key Takeaways

Anemia in cats needs immediate veterinary care as early intervention and treatment will vastly improve the outcome of the condition if clinicians can treat it effectively. 

What to Expect with Dog X-rays

What to Expect with Dog X-rays 960 1280 admin

Radiographs for Dogs

Radiographs for dogs or dog X-Rays are among the most popular and beneficial medical diagnostic procedures. The word “X-Rays” dates back to 1895, when German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen made the discovery. He named his work “On a New Kind of Rays” and used the term X-Rays instead of unknown rays. Read on to find out what to expect from radiographs.

Vet with dog and x-ray

How Much are Dog X-Rays?

So, how much is an X-Ray for a dog? Dog X-Rays typically cost around $250. Your pet won’t feel any pain throughout the operation, which is affordable and minimally intrusive. However, your dog will need to be motionless for a long time.

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With a dog, this is considerably more challenging to execute than with a person. Most dogs need sedation during the X-Ray procedure to ensure a clean image and enable your veterinarian to diagnose any potential problems with your furry friend.

Because of this, the price depends in part on the size of your dog. Larger dogs typically cost more since they need more sedative medications than smaller pets. Your dog might require more sedatives or possibly general anesthesia for the treatment if they are particularly anxious or distressed.

Why are Dog X-Rays So Expensive?

Depending on several variables, a dog’s X-Ray can cost around $80 and $400 or more. Where you decide to take your dog might significantly impact the price. 

Generally speaking, a large veterinary clinic will be more expensive than a vet in a small town. Animal welfare groups in certain places provide low-cost medical exams, which may include dog X-Rays.

The cost will be more if you take your dog to an emergency clinic rather than the vet’s office. Based on one X-Ray, the price range is between around $80 to $400. One X-Ray may not be enough to diagnose your dog’s fractured leg or broken bones in more than one place. This is especially true if the accident impacted many body parts.

The price also depends on your dog’s size. In certain cases, a small dog only needs one X-Ray. A huge dog, like a German shepherd, could need several X-Rays merely to see inside of it.

 Without some form of medicine, it could be challenging to persuade your dog to lie motionless during the X-Ray. The dog will need sedation in this case. The cost of the X-Rays will increase due to anesthesia and pain medication.

What Do Dog X-Rays Diagnose?

One of the most useful and frequently applied instruments in both human and veterinary healthcare is the X-Ray. An X-Ray of a dog can help veterinarians diagnose conditions like bladder stones, fractured bones, swallowed foreign objects, and more by giving them a glimpse of your pet’s bones, tissues, and internal organs.

The best times to use X-Rays are when observing solid tissues and bodily parts with differing tissue densities. For instance, a vet can administer a dog chest X-Ray. The lungs in the chest absorb very little X-Rays because they are mostly air-filled and have a very soft density. The bony ribs are firm and very dense, but the heart muscle is denser.

A vet can observe large blood vessels inside the lungs and the heart silhouette on an X-Ray because the blood’s venous and arterial walls are denser than those of the surrounding lungs. Pulmonary edema, where fluid builds up in the lungs, is also easily visible.

A vet can identify numerous organs in the abdomen or foreign bodies stuck in the intestines. A dog spleen X-Ray and dog hip X-Rays are good since they determine the size and form of the spleen and hips. It may be more challenging to recognize the numerous internal organs in animals with excessive obesity or little body fat.

Dental radiographs are crucial for identifying which teeth are healthy and which ones require extraction. A dental radiograph can reveal abnormalities beneath the gums that would otherwise go unseen, such as injury to the tooth roots, tumors, and abscesses.

A vet cannot see the inside of the skull clearly on an X-Ray because the cranium’s bones absorb all of the radiation, making it impossible to see the brain matter. 

With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or ultrasound, a vet can see internal features such as the inner structure of the heart, the bladder or other abdominal organs, many joints, and the lungs.

With this straightforward and affordable diagnostic equipment, a knowledgeable veterinarian and veterinary radiologist can identify various illnesses.

How to Prepare a Canine for an X-Ray at Home

When you take your pet to the veterinarian to have a problem examined, a vet will perform an X-Ray. Therefore, there is no need for preparation. Then, if an X-Ray is necessary, your veterinarian will inspect your pet and take some time to go over the process and what they will be looking for.

Vet looking for dog x-ray

Do Dogs Get Sedated for X-Rays?

Sometimes sedation is necessary to obtain a clean X-Ray. A dog won’t need sedation if it’s calm, not in too much pain, and can lay comfortably while the vet takes the X-Ray.

On the other hand, sedation is necessary if your dog is jittery, apprehensive, or in pain. Sedation is also essential if the dog’s muscles need relaxation to acquire a clean image. Other instances that need sedation are if the X-Ray is of the teeth, skull, or spine. During an X-Ray for puppies, a vet will need to sedate them.

Are X-Rays Canine-Safe?

While X-Ray use is typically safe for dogs, it involves radiation. Therefore, vets usually use X-Rays on occasion and utilize them as a diagnostic tool. Veterinarians perform pregnant dog X-Rays occasionally to learn more about a dog’s pregnancy. Alternatively, they may use ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

Speak to your veterinarian if you have issues with the usage of X-Ray equipment and the health of your dog. To decide if you want your dog to get an X-Ray, your veterinarian can explain the risks and benefits of your dog’s situation.