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CANINE PARVOVIRAL INFECTION (PARVO)

CANINE PARVOVIRAL INFECTION (PARVO) 1080 1080 Ekua Esuon Thompson

CANINE PARVOVIRAL INFECTION (PARVO)

Ever gone to get a new puppy and it suddenly died? Or realised that your puppy is continually vomiting with diarrhoea? It could be suffering from the disease known as Canine Parvoviral Infection. This disease has become a major distress to breeders and pet owners. 

As the name suggests, Parvo is a viral infection. It is one of the most stable viruses in the environment. It is heat stable and can resist cold temperatures as well. The virus is also resistant to several disinfectants available and can therefore survive for several months in a contaminated environment. The canine parvovirus targets animals from the Canidae family such as wolves, dogs and coyotes. Among dogs, puppies and unvaccinated adults are most susceptible.  

Transmission can be direct through contact with an infected dog or indirect through contact with objects contaminated usually with faeces of an infected dog. The virus has a preference for rapidly developing cells so it mostly targets the bone marrow and the walls of the small intestines. It  damages the intestinal lining leading to bloody diarrhoea. Damage to the intestines allow other bacteria to enter the bloodstream and cause other secondary infections.

Signs of the disease include vomiting, pungent smelling diarrhoea (bloody), loss of appetite, general weakness (lethargy). Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and history. Confirmation of the disease is through laboratory tests such as PCR, ELISA and Electron Microscopy.

Survival from infection is unpredictable and death is usually due to dehydration or septic shock. There is no particular or specific treatment regime to this disease. Usually, dogs recover after giving supportive care such as replacing lost fluids and treating secondary bacterial infection. It is recommended to feed your pet with bland diets during that period until recovery. Alert your vet when your pet starts showing signs of the disease. 

Vaccinate your pet between 5-6 weeks of age. Follow your veterinarian’s recommendation for parvovirus vaccination to protect your pet. 

Thompson Ekua Esuon

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RINGWORM IN PETS

RINGWORM IN PETS 494 363 Ekua Esuon Thompson

Photo Credit: © 2022 Merck & Co., Inc.

The name Ringworm may suggest an infection caused by a worm; however, this condition isn’t caused by a worm at all, but a fungus, “Microsporum canis” which can cause a generalized skin infection.  It is often associated with severe hair or fur loss and creates a ‘worm-like’ or circular rash at the site of infection, hence the name Ringworm. This highly contagious disease easily spreads to other animals and humans as well.

CAUSE AND SOURCE OF INFECTION

Most often, the source of infection is through direct contact with an infected pet or through the sharing of contaminated bedding, kennels (especially in shelters and breeding houses where dogs comingle and crowd together), toys, rugs, feeding bowls, etc. The fungal spores can remain dormant and only grow under favourable environmental conditions. Animals that like digging and playing in the soil also expose themselves to the fungus.  It is worth noting that, dogs (especially puppies less than a year old) are more prone to ringworm infection. Similarly, malnourished, immunocompromised, and stressed dogs are also at a greater risk of infection.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Key symptoms of ringworm in dogs include:

  • Skin lesions that typically appear on the head, ears, paws and limbs.
  • Patchy, crusted, scaly and circular bald spots that sometimes look red in the center and may be itchy.
  • In mild cases, there may be just a few broken hairs, whilst in severe cases it spreads over most of a dog’s body.
  • Toenails may be brittle and easily broken.

NB: It’s also possible for a pet to carry the fungus and not show any symptoms whatsoever.

DIAGNOSING RINGWORM

It is necessary that you see your vet for an accurate diagnosis if your pet is showing any signs of a skin problem as the infection can potentially spread over your pet’s body and infect other animals and people. Diagnostic options available to a veterinarian may include using an ultraviolet light (Wood Lamp examination) to see the extent of the infection, or examining a fungal culture taken from the affected area.

TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

Treatment of ringworm depends on the severity of the infection. A veterinarian may prescribe a medicated shampoo or ointment that kills fungi. In some cases, oral medications are necessary, but usually for long periods. It is important to treat your dog for as long as recommended by your veterinarian. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that reinfection won’t occur.

If your veterinarian has diagnosed your dog with ringworm, he or she will explain what you must do to prevent the fungus from spreading to other pets and human members of the household. But keep in mind that if you have other pets, it’s likely that most of them have been exposed as well. Your veterinarian may recommend that you do the following:

  • Bathe all pets in the household with a medicated rinse or shampoo.
  • Wash the infected animals’ bedding and toys with a disinfectant that kills ringworm spores.
  • Discard items that are impossible to thoroughly disinfect (e.g., carpeted cat trees)
  • Frequently vacuum to rid the house of infected hairs and skin cells as the fungus can survive on hair and skin that your dog sheds.
  • Thoroughly wash your hands after you bathe or touch your pet.